Dominic D’Agostino: Mastering Ketosis –

Video | Dave Asprey

00:00:00 > everyone Dave Asprey bulletproof executive here with bulletproof radio today's guest is Dominic dig Agostino he's an assistant professor of molecular pharmacology and physiology at USF Health Missoni College of Medicine and one of the guys I really looked to for knowledge about ketosis that fat burning state that we try to be in on the bulletproof diet most of the time but not all the time so we're going to pick his brain today about how it actually works the benefits of ketosis the risks of ketosis etc he's presented at TEDx and done a ton of different studies looking at metabolic disorders Alzheimer's disease muscle wasting cancer oxygen toxicity all kinds of cool stuff that you might not think applies to you if you just want to feel good all

00:01:01 > the time but it turns out the things we've learned by looking at the corner cases really help us know more about what's going on on our end well it looks like you work out a little bit I've seen some pictures of you I'd say you're a little more muscular than the average guy would would you say that's true uh maybe yeah I guess so pretty yeah I work out it's part of kind of what I do although I don't have a whole lot of time nowadays but you know powerlifting was a big part of you know uh my college days and I do kind of network pretty closely with the natural bodybuilding world and and have a few close friends that are tied to that community so yeah definitely interests there know at the same time you're into the keto diet or different ways of getting to ketosis are you in ketosis all the time I think so yeah pretty much unless I slip on my

00:02:02 > diet it lets I eat something out of the ordinary but generally uh yeah if you measure my blood ketones yeah it would you would show that I'm in Quito it's 95 percent of the time or more sometimes I overeat on you know protein and or occasional go to the movies and have popcorn but that's pretty rare special popcorn no all right so 95 percent of the time I am pretty much obviously that's it's my research field and I do it for practical reasons too because staying in ketosis prevents me from getting hungry so I eat two meals a day spaced roughly about 12 hours apart and you know I come from a background of eating like six meals a day and I can't imagine going back to that pattern of eating or having a time or patience to do all the food preparation and the shopping and everything involved and you

00:03:03 > know eating multiple times a day which a lot of people feel that they need to for performance but I know that's not the case you and me both the idea of many meals a day is exhausting and just why would you so can you kind of summarize your research I did my best I mentioned some of the fields but for people listening ajan they're driving imagine that half of them have heard of ketosis the other half may be interested in just how do they perform better or how do they lose weight so a little bit of an explanation of ketosis how you enter it and also why do you care about it at the levels where you're doing research ok I got into this research because I was intensely looking into an anti-seizure strategy and kind of exhausted all options and then I discovered that the ketogenic diet I thought it was used primarily for weight

00:04:04 > loss but I discovered the real you know function of the diet how how it came about was for controlling drug resistant seizures and it has roots back in the 1920s and earlier and that was essentially what I was being paid to do to develop an anti seizure strategy for oxygen toxicity which can happen on while breathing a high-pressure oxygen with a with a special unit the Special Ops guys use a closed-circuit rebreather and it can create seizures if they dive too deep and you know it so I the the diet interests me you know that the evidence showed that it was probably better than most drugs out there and obviously it didn't have side effects associated with anti-seizure medication and I became interested in that but more importantly interested in how to mimic this with a ketogenic agent and the ones that were out there are are like MCT oil but I wanted to develop a ketone ester

00:05:07 > which if taken orally can put you into starvation level ketosis in like 15 minutes to a half-hour and sustain it for hours so in the process of developing that and testing that we demonstrated that it's it's has a very strong anti seizure effects and that ketosis has the broad range of applications for neurological diseases and even cancer we're studying now and from a performance enhancement point of view ketones function as an alternative fuel for your brain and for your muscles too so we are looking at you know the application of a ketogenic diet and also supplemental ketones to enhance cognitive performance and also physical performance I'm working on some studies of my own given that I Ming MCT oil and some of the even more filtered versions like my brain octane stuff I'm I'm

00:06:09 > interested in the cognitive performance aspects of it so I've done some limited experiments with EEG s and mmm it's kind of amazing what mental endurance does when you have ketones in the body now where can I get some of these ketones esters you're talking about sign me up uh well that they're pretty new actually at least in our lab there's the military has been working on these these things for a while maybe the last ten years but probably and only the last few years have they been able to be produced in a way that's safe and that can be applied to humans Kito Nestor's probably won't be available for a while as a nutritional supplement maybe it's a medical application they taste horrible you know stomaching them is really a hard thing there is a product I've heard is that they taste like ass like worse than glutathione it's so far is that true yeah uh yeah they do

00:07:12 > there's not a whole lot of people who to have consumed them so I probably know the person you're talking about because there's a very limited amount of people who have used these maybe some advanced athletes and military guys but uh connection okay okay you know that there is you know Patrick Arnold there's a chemist he's a chemist he has a company called prototype nutrition and he sells a product called keto force and and that is kind of like a you know a poor man's version of a ketone ester I think and it it's essentially ketones that can be absorbed and and rapidly assimilated and used for fuel and our lab has found that you know that that's a very effective way to elevate ketones but it's even more effective when it's combined with MCT oil so we're testing this right now and and you know the performance the application for this for cognitive

00:08:15 > function and performance is very real and I think it would be best used if in athletes that are already keto adapted meaning that their their systems are already used to kind of utilizing ketone bodies as an energy substrate and you know when we're in a keto adapted state the mechanisms for utilizing and transporting ketone bodies to muscles in the brain are upregulated and I have a hunch just based on our research that that a person wanting to enhance performance would be best suited to use this in combination with low carbohydrate diet so this has been kind of an ongoing question I use again a lot of brain the brain octane which is the shorter chain MCT is extracted from plain MCT oil I used both of them but I get a lot less of the GI problems when I use that and I use it primarily for cognitive enhancement and I'm doing

00:09:16 > probably four tablespoons of the stuff a day sometimes a little more sometimes it'll less now I can use ketones for energy all day long I feel great but I do eat carbs probably 50 grams sometimes 100 grams and sometimes I go deep into ketosis am I going to be able to burn ketones and use those at the same time there's some glucose in my body if I have an extra normal amount of ketones because I'm taking all that oil yes the work of you know I just recently the Joel Amana who's a top ketogenic diet researcher gave a talk here at University of South Florida and his research has shown that ketones spare glucose in the brain so the brain will preferably use ketone bodies over glucose and I get this question a lot are ketones the preferred source of energy for the brain and I get this

00:10:17 > question and you know no less than 50 times I think and I always said well we don't know that and the emerging research that's just starting to come out and will come out in the next year will demonstrate that ketone bodies are in essence a preferred fuel that the brain will use them in place of glucose and spare glucose we know from the work of Richard beech and several others that ketones are very efficient metabolic fuel probably more so than than glucose so you have an alternative fuel that can potentially enhance you know metabolic efficiency and ATP production and that can spare glucose and I think that's that's in part the big the big advantage of the ketogenic diet is that you know when you're following a ketogenic diet and you're exercising you can tap into your fat reserves and mobilize fat as a fuel source more

00:11:18 > efficiently and thereby preserving glycogen stores so and and the ultimate determining factor you know and how long you can go is the preservation of glycogen stores you know once they're depleted you basically bonk if you're on a carbohydrate restricted diet your diet sounds like it's carbohydrate restricted 50 to 100 grams is yeah and and you are you're essentially in ketosis you're bouncing in and out I think you're probably an active guy yeah yeah and so you would pry in some ways that could be optimal because a very strict ketogenic diet that's used for clinical application I think is is very is restrictive and it may not be optimal and the athletes that I'm talking to and you know even myself I think it's it's helpful to have some amount of carbohydrate in the diet because your body if there wasn't your body's transport mechanisms will likely be down

00:12:19 > regulated so keeping a little bit of carbohydrate in your diet which I do too in the form of you know salads and dark chocolate I probably have everyday I I limit it kind of like you on real active days maybe up to a hundred but on typically 50 and it comes mostly from blueberries you know dark chocolate and your broccoli asparagus stuff like that stuff you probably consume so I've gone very strict ketosis and I've done this kind of you know very minimal carbohydrate restricted diet bordering on I guess what's considered a paleo like diet and I feel better if I have a little bit of carbohydrate in my system so so I'm kind of with you on that and I'm always in ketosis so even if I don't take supplemental ketones I'm always some level of ketosis so I I found yesterday I was I tried one of these new keto glowsticks have you seen these things yeah I'm testing them now actually Wow I'll show you my new show me your

00:13:22 > work yeah we're like yeah not too many people have this so I'm curious so you must know Metron or the people from Medtronic I know one is their advisors who's testing it out and hooked me yep so yeah I'm quite intrigued although it didn't turn purple yesterday but I when I travel I tend to eat more carbs because you're at a restaurant I'm not eating your crap meat yeah Emily grass-fed so I'd rather eat white rice soaked in MCT and butter and vegetables than I would dare to industrial chicken or some crab so I'm willing to go out of ketosis and still eat a lot of fat sushi and MCT is also good so here's me guys who's ever said that yes it's a stay really yeah so you will allows you with MCT yeah I was given this this suggestion by yeah by a fellow that used to be work for NASA actually was one of the directors at NASA and jumped on the ketogenic diet and it kind of really literally changed his life so he's like you got to try

00:14:23 > sushi with MCT so I brought my my MC t2 to the sushi place and I got some strange looks but it was delicious I wonder if if he might have got that for me I've been talking about this for a while on the podcast but I've done it in Hawaii I've given it even in Japan to sushi chefs and they try it and it gave me this look like oh my god it's really good because you think coconut yuck but it's just in more rice and more fish right yeah yeah and it's a flavor carrier and that's really why you know MC tees are used in food product store a flavor enhancer they really helps to food spread it out on your palate and it's definitely a flavor enhancer even when I make a bulletproof coffee I put the brain octane in I used to use my upgraded mct but I prefer just the straight c8 it works better and it doesn't have yes many of the GI FX when I do that even like the coffee and the butter taste spreads out the mouthfeel is improved and as somewhat of a chef

00:15:25 > more like a molecular gastronomy meets health instead of flavor I think MC teas are essential for almost any meal if you want the Mac some flavor I haven't cooked anything without MCT on her when it was done in a long time yeah I I have MC t right by my stove I use it I cooked my eggs in it this morning I put it on salads I make salad dressing with it yeah Kent I can't think of anything I don't use MC t for actually I make this keto pudding at night chocolate keto pudding with like whipped cream and just get regular cream right and then whip it so and so it has no sugar in it YUM add like stevia or something to it and add chocolate baking powder to it yeah stir it in and and I put it in the freezer and it's like chocolate mousse you could do the same with sour cream it works pretty good with sour cream you could do the same with with concentrated coconut milk that's what I did coconut milk version that was my birthday cake it was exactly Wow alright

00:16:26 > since we're sharing these are things I only thought I knew yeah I'm Shawn Thanos and I actually make a chocolate the upgraded chocolate I'll send you some just as a as a thank you it's a powder that's raw and it's tested for absence of mycotoxins from ancient species with more antioxidants and whatnot but it's yeah I use that I use sugar alcohols by the way what do you think is out all erythritol yes no yeah I uh you know stevia powder is really concentrated and sometimes I'll take the xylitol Jeff Volek you know some of his ideas uh I borrowed from him for with that idea and that's pretty good I like it yeah I used I think it's okay you know the sugar alcohols that are in a lot of protein bars and things like that it can be pretty can cause some GI issues but xylitol it's also pretty tolerable for me me too I intentionally placed into but if you take too much too fast not a good thing for the people around you yeah yeah so I

00:17:28 > try to wean yeah I was just going to try to wean myself off you know hyper sweet things anyway so I'm using much less sweetener overall sweetener now me too I don't want to swim in it I don't want to crave the sweet taste but yeah recipes like just to get a sweet hint at the end of barbecue how its barbecue without it you can't mmm that's it so here's the trick to enhance your whipped cream thing or to do it with coconut milk melt straight cocoa butter not the powdered baker's chocolate but actually just the bat when you're whipping it yeah and and the heavier saturated fats and the chocolate flavor they're make the mousse hold up better when you freeze it and it totally changes the mouthfeel it's transformative you feel like you got a letter yeah and that melts a hot much higher temperature than like just you know coconut oil or it's it's it comes in white it's yeah white or off-white yeah Alton I'll send you some eyebrows those are three of my four food items that I

00:18:30 > ended up putting on the site because enough people were asking about it yeah but the the reason that that feels good is it melts I think at 98 right around 98 99 right about body temperature cocoa butter melts and then you get the the lower temperature cocoa butter so when you put it in your mouth you get the different fats melting at different times in it for a founded em dead person it just makes you smile mm-hmm yeah oh how exciting I had no idea anyone else knew that recipe it's cool oh yeah yeah if I've done a lot of experimenting yeah you have to you have to when I start doing this and and also I work with um well I communicate with a number of patients who are adapting this for to manage you know a disease process so compliance is the major issue and weaning someone off really high carbohydrates to a ketogenic diet to manage epilepsy or even even cancer can be tricky and and these diesel little these desserts these hints can can have

00:19:32 > mean the difference between compliance and no compliance so they've really been helpful for a lot of people that I know it it should be delicious bulletproof coffee has been to very hello for a lot of people that I know no patients yep very much so thanks for letting me know I I like to imagine people who for their own life need ketosis that for me that was the easiest way to get in and turn off food cravings and just stay in as long as I wanted so the just working do you put protein in it for these people or do you just tell them to go for pure fat um that that's an option uh what I do I do two meals per day and I do kind of fats in between and like this morning I had I had eggs and bacon and broccoli I think and you know throughout the day I will have probably two cups a bulletproof coffee and mid-morning and then again you know mid-afternoon about to four o'clock and

00:20:34 > I tell them to do the same because I can get my blood glucose down which is kind of part of the therapy that we're working with in the 60s and then keep it and sometimes it'll dip you know below 60 and and I take branched chain amino acids so that's another thing that I tell here's your insulin Evo don't they well I haven't seen insulins really dependent upon total calories you know and if it did raise insulin it would really drop it would really drop your your blood glucose and I don't see that I see a mild decrease in blood glucose and from all the blood work that I've seen everyone's insulin is like through the floor like some cases not even measurable you know I'm just so you know they're very on a very restricted calorie restricted carbohydrate so if it is it's very transient and and I believe you know if your body's hungry if you're at a calorie deficit the insulin will likely stimulate you know

00:21:37 > muscle your on your muscles are hungry so the glucose a little bit of glucose that's available go into muscles okay just gets used yeah and branched chain amino acids are anti catabolic too so I think they help preserve muscle tissue during periods of calorie restrictions I think they can be beneficial and they tend to dampen appetite - are you on a calorie restricted diet usually or no I I don't that if if I was if there was a calorie deficit I'd be losing weight and that's not the case I typically maintain I've lost some weight over the years as I shifted to this pattern of eating but I mean I still I'm still technically overweight I'm like 225 230 and that's what I maintain and this is just soft 2 meals per day but my meals are pretty big like six eggs no bacon or actually I had salmon with a bacon this morning and then I'm in a fasted state now time is I haven't eaten

00:22:38 > in about 10 hour or two no 11 hours and I'm not hungry at all not the least bit hungry and I you know if you 10 years ago I couldn't and never imagined going 11 hours during the day and not being hungry and I wouldn't have you know appetite and I have a lot of energy it's the energy thing that's transformative because no way you want to kill people or fall asleep when you're then yeah yep as a former 300 pounder I'm about by day any earth I've been putting on some muscle like I'm decent here yeah amazing but so I'm I probably only eighty pounds down from that but I've been at around 200 plus some muscle ever like for more than 10 years and I remember the six meals a day were addictive literally if you don't get it you're gonna crater mmm no and thinking that you needed it it is totally yeah like just bad information and having stress when it wasn't there oh yeah yeah so I decided to show that

00:23:41 > the calorie thing didn't quite work right I thought I would make myself gain a few pounds so I went on a very high calorie diet between 4,000 and 4,500 calories a day I slept five hours or less per night and I stopped all exercise and I was going to do this for a month or two I was going to gain 3 pounds and say you know the calorie tables say I should have gained 20 pounds the equations are broken I did it for two years and I grew a six-pack how does that fit into your research like did I poop out a lot of extra fat like how is this possible there's a couple things going on and we're actually studying it I think from a metabolomic point of view so there's there's technology that's available where you can you know pull blood and just look at the spectrum of metabolites and get some insight into how metabolism is working in short though I mean you push your body from a

00:24:42 > glucose sugar based metabolism to a fatty acid and ketone metabolism and in going from point A to point B and during that process you've up regulated fat transport you've enhanced mitochondrial function mitochondrial biogenesis so the mitochondria are basically the little organelles that are burning fat in your cells and you've enhanced the number of mitochondria and their ability to to oxidize fat for energy and this is clear you know if you look at athletes that are keto adapted if you look at you know their respiratory quotient is much lower so they're basically just burning fat completely for fuel jeff Volek is doing a lot of innovative really cool studies on athletes that are fat adapted and gave me a little bit of insight into some some work that will be published pretty soon and these guys are just like they're burning fat off the chart their

00:25:45 > bodies are just oxidizing massive amounts of fat because they're completely on very low carbohydrate diets are these endurance athletes or these power athletes his guys are ultra endurance athletes and we're setting up to do a similar study and put guys a strength athletes on a ketogenic diet and then you know looking do their bloodwork and just look at a whole variety of parameters the only we know these these metabolic adaptations happen you know the body's ability to oxidize fat for energy is increased tremendous and it'll vary between some people but most people you know once they're fat adapted and you can you can use objective measures like respiratory quotient to show that they're just pulling off their fat stores for energy what's the downside of doing this you know that's a good question because I do

00:26:46 > get an I do get some reports of people saying my LDL cholesterol is like off-the-charts you know and and everything my HDL went up my triglycerides bottom down like glucose is now under control but my doctor sees my LDL cholesterol is elevated and is urging me to get off diet so my response is something like okay so all markers of metabolic health have improved and you're telling me that one you know this marker of metabolic health that your doctor saying is so important and the data is very fuzzy conflicting and confusing whether that's the case and you feel better you know your body weights down you're telling me your concern that this high-fat diet is going to decrease your lifespan just because your LDLs you know ten to twenty percent elevated which they think is alarming that's what I've seen a number I would say it's it could be as high as twenty to thirty percent of people have this

00:27:47 > response this increase in cholesterol and it will increase total cholesterol because your good cholesterol goes up too yeah in most people and then if your LDL goes up that can be a problem and generally it you know kind of stays the same but in some people it does go up so that can be a concern to some people but I tell them not to worry about it but a number of people that I've told that to went you know they trust her doctor and they're now on a statin and my mom actually went on statin and had a lot of side effects and had to get off of it is she on the same diet not no not completely I mean I come from an Italian family where pasta was a staple right so they've gradually you know replaced the starches with vegetables and have went to that that pattern of eating but not completely ketogenic by any means but much much lower carbohydrate diet so

00:28:51 > not everyone is going to be you know adapt to the ketogenic diet or low carbohydrate diet but 90 in my my mind at least 90 percent of the people will have an improvement in metabolic health in their sense of well-being and pretty much all markers of of health will improve with carbohydrate restriction that I've seen and I've been following a lot of people and you know I always am scientist so I want to see objective data I want to see blood work and I've looked at a lot of blood work and rarely do I see you know on a few occasions and and even on the few occasions where the blood work was kind of off you know I couldn't really confirm whether they were eating too many calories or actually following the diet when you tell people to measure their ketones and stuff it it's kind of hard to get them to do it yeah completely so that that's usually an important thing but usually glucose triglycerides and HDL will tell

00:29:55 > you the story you know there are the things that I and ends like things like c-reactive protein you know and markers of inflammation are important but that was my next question so I I noticed when someone goes on the bulletproof diet which is a cyclical ketogenic diet I told me once every week maybe 10 days eat some carbs to let yourself you know come out of ketosis and then go back in yeah and lots of upgraded mct etc 70% fat when they do this you'll see HDL go up you see triglycerides drop generally in six weeks c-reactive protein goes down a lot homocysteine goes down a lot mmm but I also look at LP PLA - because if LDL goes up which it does and some percentage people including me my total cholesterol is to 50 to 60 a couple people have gone up to 300 people I work with but you look at LP PLA - and it drops in all but two people who have

00:30:57 > other like smoldering infection kind of things yes so if you have high LDL and low LP PLA - there no vascular inflammation going on yeah you feel comfortable if that was your numbers if you had that combination of no inflammatory markers but high LDL yeah yeah I would be I would be most people wouldn't be but but I would be I know that that's actually a pretty common scenario okay I see it and I have it in myself and I'm totally comfortable with it I perform better yep all right let's talk LP a mmm just you know I hope you little a there's actually before we talk about LP a that's not the one I'm thinking of I'm talking about APO be sorry many pob is you know the the protein associated with fat transport yeah that always goes up when people go on a kit ketogenic diet why because you're transporting more fats amen brother yeah some people always read out good

00:32:01 > numbers the simple answer yeah is it's the right answer so yeah yeah okay and that's the APO b48 the fat transport apob versus APO be 100 that most lambs don't look at it all yeah okay cool so that means if you're on the bulletproof diet you're listening to this and you have high apoB and your LDL is elevated there's a reason for that it's because you're in fat-burning mode what you want it to be in yeah cool yeah other big question for you and this has been driving me crazy I see in 2030 percent of people on the bulletproof diet elevated sex hormone-binding globulin you ever come across them and your group of people and if so why is this happening yeah that's a good question and some some people have suppressed thyroid or t3 to t4 conversion to our t4 to t3 conversion it's important to

00:33:04 > carbohydrate restriction and insulin could be affecting these things in regulating these things so that could be coming into play also if they're on the diet are they are they exercising are they are they over exercising you know there's a lot of factors coming into play so you need to control are all variables and I would need to see all variables to really comment on this but this is what I you know for males they could be this could be alarming right because you're binding up testosterone so you have less free testosterone and to work at the receptor but this is what I know is that when you're exercise especially lifting weights your androgen receptor density is going to increase it'll you know and the cell membrane and a little bit of you know to stop even if your testosterone goes down or more of its bound and less in the free form it's going to be more anabolic you know your

00:34:07 > receptor sensitivity will be higher your Energon receptor density will probably be elevated and you know I've seen people that have a lot of muscle mass they go on a ketogenic diet they perform very well they retain their their lean body mass even after losing a significant amount of fat then they go get blood work and their testosterone like you know 260 on a scale of like 250 to 1000 but they've they're obviously you know that amount of testosterone is working for them so I think their muscle the muscle becomes sensitized to the effects of anabolic hormones and insulin to you know your insulin sensitivity goes up and you secrete very little insulin but it's working well you know it's a couple athletes that I know can consume carbohydrates and their blood glucose doesn't even go you know above like 90 or 100 with a carb meal you know because there's no sensitive yeah because they're so sensitive all right this is so interesting I so I don't I

00:35:11 > wouldn't be alarmed I don't de tell you truth I don't know exactly why it happens but I have seen that with carbohydrate restricted diets and people who over exercise too will tend to have a higher sex hormone-binding globulin so that's kind of a redress response okay one of the recommendations I make for people on the bulletproof I it is followed body by science every 7 to 10 or 14 days lived really heavy things until you can't anymore for 15 minutes and it's been a long time recovering once you do that don't tend have this problem the ones who have to do workout every two days to get the opiates those guys tend to run into this problem or exactly that that's what I've seen I'm a minimalist when it comes to working out I couldn't I go heavy maybe once maybe twice a week if I'm not traveling and then just hit you know some chin-ups and push up some things at the house I do whole body vibration more for the lymphatics come on but you get them yesterday yeah and then I do actually everything I've got right now

00:36:12 > is all from electrical stimulation I haven't picked up anything heavy in a while but it's pretty heavy electricity yeah I haven't done that but you know I'm aware of its benefits through you know different uh for recovery type things and yeah I write type I was shocked at what it just does for you know I look like I've been lifting but I really had what kind of like this is neat so we'll see when you can sure you can get so sore you can barely walk okay that's a good indicator that it's actually giving a the force generation that's needed I remember when I was younger you know in the back of magazines like Muscle & Fitness you'd see you see dudes all wired up with these things and it would just put you know millivolts into the muscle not enough to really you know cause significant contraction but I know now that there exist devices that can really cause a strong stimulation and simulation on my sternum I'd actually I got a bruise for the first time from from using something

00:37:14 > like it interesting it's rock hard it's like you have a hundred pounds and you're really trying to just crank on your delt but the Machine I have is it's a prototype you can't even buy it so when you do it this obviously hurts a bit so why don't you just exercise what does it have benefits is the contractile force like above and beyond what you could do when if you just lifted weights it is and okay also get neurological benefits so you get more myelination of the nerves which is what I'm going for I was kind of faster response times greater yeah so it's you know it's out there and I'm not suggesting this for everyone by a longshot / science protocols are well proven yeah same time I get a much better Vasco ization more allegedly more mitochondrial of growth yeah and it's it I'll tell you in another couple months where I end up but so far I've put on about 12 pounds of muscle in the past month or so in you know 10 minutes every other day kind of thing I'm intrigued yeah are you familiar with

00:38:17 > blood flow restriction you know occlusion training its goals but sounds so yeah so you know you put wraps around your arms here or around your legs and you can lift 20% of the load that you normally do and by impeding blood flow back you create you essentially create a you know an acidic environment in the muscles and you create a you know intermittent hypoxia and that activates you know a variety of growth factors including igf-1 at that muscle where you're impeding blood flow and you can it's you have significant increase in muscle protein synthesis and one of my friends Jeremy lonneke has published extensively the Japanese people have been looking at blood flow restriction they call it occlusion training so just do a quick search on occlusion training and you'll come up with a number of articles one was written by a good friend of mine Lane Norton he's advocated this Lane as a top natural

00:39:20 > bodybuilder and you know I've trained with him you know calf training with him is very painful so there's legit science or even journals you know journals of occlusion training and so um Leigh I want to get them on guys to talk to share what a cool idea yep alright yeah I'm gonna that sounds right up your alley yeah I'm going to like psycho acting but it turns out this podcast is now number one ranked on iTunes and health so about half a million people a month will hear it so this is a way to get these ideas out there where people believe they have to work out you know 45 minutes a day going for a run everyday to feel good it's like yeah you're a pretty darn knowledgeable guy who's doing research on exercise natural bodybuilding you look great and like look what you're doing it's so different than what the mainstream is doing and I'd argue it's more efficient and certainly more interesting I'm all about saving time so you kind of very important yeah all right one other big question you might

00:40:21 > be able to answer about Oh a year ago a year and a half ago when I was doing my 4,000 calorie a day thing I decided I was going to try and eat like an Eskimo so I eliminated all but one serving of green vegetables a day and I cranked up my fat and I still eating a pretty good amount of meat tons of eggs stuff like that a little bit of wheat protein all that and I did it for three months and during that time I went deep into ketosis but I started waking up nine times a night I'd wake up feeling exhausted my zio showed just almost no in fact zero deep sleep I had dry super dry eyes super dry sinuses a rasping cough that wouldn't go away and eventually I developed food allergies at the end of that that I hadn't had before have you seen this on people on extreme ketosis kind of diets like that what exactly were you eating so eggs for one thing and by the way I gave myself an allergy to to my great

00:41:24 > annoyance there were like one of my staple foods your third overeating eggs probably yeah and also because I believe that I stopped making mucus because the dry eyes the nose problems that I just didn't have enough polysaccharides to make it and so the mucus that lines my gut went away so I got got permeability and some of my favorite foods made it through my gut and when I went off that diet as some of my other things like honey and sweet potatoes which is how I refuel boom both of those I've got food reactions too now you ever seen as I'm sure no but I think you know that this kind of diet and extreme ketogenic diet or maybe eliminating some foods that may have been providing some mac or micronutrients that were essential for cellular function could have could have been a way sensitized you you know I don't know how I know ketogenic diet when people start it and get into ketosis there's actually a flood of

00:42:25 > stress hormones yeah and there's you know the immune systems immensely complicated thing but everyone's body can react differently to two stressors and so you might have had like an over activation of the immune system where it's picking up and detecting you know certain proteins or food constituents are identified as antigens when they otherwise weren't before and I know you know in a calorie restricted ketogenic diet state the body is kind of hypersensitive and we see this even with drug administration like you have a greater transport of certain drugs across the blood-brain barrier for example you know in when when your body is sort of hungry and in this fasted state so getting back to your question I don't know I would I would have to see exactly what you've done and have to know a lot more information or really even comment but it's not out of the

00:43:27 > ordinary you put your body through through stress and the adaptation to that stress can vary between different people you know and we kind of we study that in the lab we look at like hyperbaric oxygen and you know a young person will have a more robust adaptation to that stimulus than an older person so they may confer some of the benefits you know as far as wound healing or mobilization of stem cells that an older person wouldn't have so they would have it enhanced and heightened it you know healing response compared to an older person and where hyperbaric oxygen may be just causing excess oxidative stress so it's really maybe not the the you know the dietary intervention but your adaptation to it and you know I've seen different things I've seen some people who just cannot seem to adapt to a ketogenic diet they feel awkward or they feel awful initially and they just they're just sluggish and they go

00:44:29 > back to eating carbs and and they can you know they do well on carbohydrates they're not not most people do better on a low-carb diet but there are some people that I know that just kind of do better with carbs in their diet I had one client I'm thinking of she's really passionate just powerful person and after about three months without the refueling regimen right so every 7 to 10 days eat some carbs she wasn't doing that and she stopped dreaming and her sleep quality declined and she's kind of felt like she lost her her mojo a little bit of an edge she had and when she added once a week carbs back in it worked so one of the reasons I built cyclical refeeds in but not crap refeeds but you're just carbohydrate refeeds with low toxin cook on a regular basis was because well women need it more than men in my experience and also it just seemed to head off some of these problems so you get the polysaccharides

00:45:30 > for mucus production and all I wonder if the people who don't adapt to a holy ketogenic diet would adapt to a cyclical one pretty easily yeah that's a good question cyclical I mean that can vary between one diet that I followed before going completely ketogenic was ketogenic and except you know during my workout I would throw in carbohydrates about 30 to 50 grams right around the carbohydrate and I called that the targeted ketogenic diet or cyclical so and the carb frequency would depend on how many times I worked out per week you know if it was five days a week I was eating carbs five days a week but it was kind of a smaller amount yeah I think women in particular do not adapt to the ketogenic diet as well as most males and I think yeah they will get cranky they'll get some hormone hormone issues and stuff and I think

00:46:31 > that a lot of it they do need some insulin and they do there their hormone production seems to be somewhat dependent upon you know carbohydrates some extent they seem to do really well though on MCT whether or not they're in ketosis yeah you've seen research about MCT and thyroid activation at all not MCT the calorie restriction and thyroid uh you know your thyroid active t3 will definitely go down with calorie restriction in your body temperature will go down with time so and some people who get on a ketogenic diet will comment on that but what they kind of fully don't appreciate is that many times a ketogenic diet will result in self restriction of calories it will be a mild amount of calorie restriction associated with a ketogenic diet inadvertently and calorie

00:47:34 > restriction over time can lead to a decrease in active thyroid excess training too much can lead to an act I'm a Ben Greenfield was was you know I was talking to him recently and he had some thyroid issues with he thought resulted from ketosis and you know and it's like we were at the ancestral health meeting and I was like what's your training like I was like wow I think all my hormones would be in the floor if I was to do that kind of insane training regimen on my body probably never take it but I talked to him about that too I'm like yeah you're gonna get old someday dude like anyone to protect yourself ever but maybe the answer is to not do that to your body yeah I he's gravitating to a more minimalistic approach I would constraint I hope he does cuz he's yeah it's enough guy and you know he uses a lot of the bulletproof products to stay in ketosis yeah yeah and in fact I'm having him on the show at some point coming up I think after he does the Ironman like

00:48:35 > drinking upgraded mct kind of stuff yeah the question though is like long-term longevity stuff which is I'm as much an anti aging guy I'm a performance guy and I just don't believe that the chronic cardio for years and years is going to make anyone live better ketosis or not at where do you come down on that spectrum yeah it's varies between people but I think you know I do very little if any cardio I used to in the past and I've experimented with it I mean I was into mountain biking for a while and a did a variety of you know different cardio things and I just your body quickly adapts to it so it's kind of it's like you're a rat on a treadmill you know just kind of keep going with it and if you stop there's always the rebound effect uh it's time-consuming I just there's just when it comes to metabolic health you know lean body mass will always kind of win over over a

00:49:40 > cardiovascular exercise in objective measurements of improved metabolic health so decrease blood glucose better insulin sensitivity markers you know your lipid profile overall will improve with a strength training exercise you know a weightlifting routine that optimize is lean body mass so you're building metabolic tissue or metabolically active tissue that's just burning fat and helping to keep your blood glucose low which is going to decrease inflammation and and everything else so III know a number of people who have done like in preparation for contests or events who have just over exercised and you can't there's only a certain amount of time in the day you can't just keep adding hours and hours of aerobic exercise over time it's it's

00:50:42 > going to catch up to you like you just can't you can't do it and when you stop people become insulin resistant you know and I've seen their blood work like you know staying I and especially people in northern climates where you can't you know if you're up in you know Buffalo New York or something in your you're a runner and you like to do it outside it's just um you know it's not really good for your body to just prepare for a marathon for example and just put your body through all that stress I mean look at what happened to the first guy who ran a marathon right yeah that hold dying and celebrating his death all right yeah yeah yeah yeah so all right another question for you what about kids I mean should kids be in ketosis like what about my four-year-old he's not by the way he just needs a ton of fat but I don't think he's in ketosis you know he gets some carbs but not an excessive amount of sugar and corn syrup and a lot of stuff is ketosis optimal

00:51:47 > for kids if that's the question uh kids that are growing will benefit from having you know some amount of insulin in their body for growth and pair and you know that's why kids because you're getting so big now and that's why people are women girls in particular entering you know adolescence and much earlier now I think carbohydrate well I think kids are eating way too many carbs so I think carbs in the diet are probably a good thing but just to eliminate you know just you know grains and sugars and just kind of just basic common sense stuff yeah basic carp yeah carbohydrate restriction can be helpful for for most kids but then again I mean I'm looking and thinking about my nieces and nephews that are their metabolisms are like on fire so yeah and they they eat an enormous amount of sugar and carbs and they're like super lean like Anatomy

00:52:48 > charts so I think it's going to vary it you know if your kid's fat then restrict his carbohydrates and give them fat kids love fat you know they love they love bacon they love eggs they love peanut butter yeah so it's not hard to get kids to eat fat and I think it's it's it's it would be relatively easy to take out sugars and carbohydrates and replace it with fat for kids most kids I know like fatty foods but the first thing that my daughter ever asked Santa for the first time she sat on his lap you know she was to two and a half or something and he says what do you want for christmas little girl and she says I want my own stick of salted butter and when I gave it to her Christmas morning she picks it up like an Olympic torch and runs around their house screaming with delight and opens it like a Snickers bar and takes a bite and puts it back in fridge and block off their relationship with butter is is very healthy and they don't get carbs in the morning six days a week because it makes them misbehave and then they want snacks and

00:53:50 > they're cranky but they can have a few carbs at lunch more dinner and it seems to help sleep so that restricted but in the morning they eat eggs and salmon and bacon and some vegetables and nuts or whatever but they do not get you know fruit for breakfast that's just not okay yeah the studies that were done it like Johns Hopkins with kids that have pediatric epilepsy they show pretty good that the ketogenic diet will not restrict growth and development you know like anti-seizure drugs for example and that kids develop and grow pretty well I mean you're probably familiar with the Charlie Foundation you know the the Charlie Foundation kind of topped the rise the ketogenic diet so it's it's a foundation that was started by Jim Abraham's he's a Hollywood producer he produced like the airplane movie and his son Charlie had seizures that couldn't be controlled and then he discovered that the kids jank diet used in his own research discovered that the

00:54:51 > Q junk diet was used to control seizures and put his son on it and it was like this magical cure that controlled his seizures and wanted to tell the world about it so he created the Charlie Foundation and their link with Johns Hopkins Hospital and now there's like probably at least 70 clinics across the United States @rq genetic diet clinics that put kids on the ketogenic diet and monitor their health and Eric goes off and John Freeman have done incredible work to make this popular now you know now it's like the standard of care when drugs fail kids are put on a ketogenic diet and enough studies have been done to show that it is not impact their development with their cardiovascular health that is really good news for people who do have kids in ketosis yeah I think it's nice for them to have some carbs they benefit from more carbs than adults but not excessive and not the wrong types yeah and I think you know it's really common like if your kids fat then just cut the carbs you know if your kids use super lean and ass

00:55:53 > and and you know hyper athletic and growing and like playing football or some kind of sports so carbs are easy calories to get in and and I think they can be kind of titrated into the diet based on activity level based on your ability to metabolize them and everyone has different carbohydrate tolerance you know I think it's important to know that we're coming up on the end of the show there's one question that I've asked every single guest and that is based on all the things that you know if there were three pieces of advice you had to share with someone who wanted to just kick more ass in all domains of life not just food well maybe three so you're asking for three recommendations yep well I would take a step back and kind of look at your life and determine uh what's not

00:56:56 > working and what has worked for you and I would minimize or eliminate the things that do not contribute to productive patterns ah and I would take a close look at the things that have gotten you to where you are today and I mean this is going to vary between between a lot of people but I would take a close look at what has gotten you to where we want to be and these things are usually associated with time management for me personally it's a diet and nutrition so following a ketogenic diet has actually been liberating in that it's unable to free up a lot of time for me and as far as time during the day so I'm more productive and I have more energy to do the things that I need to do and it's connected with me with a network of people that have helped my research and

00:57:59 > inspired me to pursue and explore nutrition as a lifestyle so when you when you feel good you can be more productive and and so that was like two things nutrition and I think when it comes to as far as physical health downtime is extremely important and a lot of people get so caught up in their jobs and don't take time they don't take constructive what I like to call creative downtime so I think that everybody needs to have creative downtime you know scheduled into their day in one form or another for some people that may be playing with their dog taking the dog for a walk I don't know working out exercising walk in the park you know fishing or whatever but I think that needs to be incorporated into a person's day every

00:59:02 > day if they can obviously there's some situations where they can't but I am much more productive if I scheduled downtime into my my life so otherwise I just get burnout becoming inefficient yeah scheduled downtime scheduled recovery time great advice man yeah where can people learn more about your research or what you're doing uh you know I I have a website that's keto Nutrition lrg and I get a lot of emails from patients seeking seeking a metabolic therapy to manage either their weight or cancer or epilepsy and what I do I just compiled the research on there and I actually have clinical trials listed on there that people can seek if they're looking to manage metabolically managed some disease process so keto nutrition RG and you know our publications which we have a

01:00:04 > number of them under review now so I would just yeah look at those two things I think I put enough information on my my website Q nutrition orgy I want to kind of develop more of a comprehensive website that tackles all these issues cognitive performance physical performance epilepsy cancer and be a little more interactive that's kind of in the making but I've been kind of too busy teaching and doing research to really invest the time and to do that so awesome thanks for being on the show Dominic really appreciate all the knowledge is shared pleasure being here thanks for having me so heart rate variability is the naturally occurring irregularity of a heart beat so if your heart beats that let's say 60 beats per minute that doesn't mean it beats at one-second intervals in fact that would be really unhealthy that would be like a no HRV it actually beats in say point nine eight seconds one point oh two

seconds one point oh four seconds and so on and averages out to one-second intervals