ARTICLE | Ray Peat

null | Serotonin, depression, and aggression: The problem of brain energy


Extremely serious mistakes about the nature of the solar system didn't matter too much until interplanetary travel became a possibility. Extremely serious mistakes about brain "transmitters" and "receptors" didn't matter too much until the drug industry got involved. "Three years before Prozac received approval by the US Food and Drug Administration in late 1987, the German BGA, that country's


ARTICLE | Ray Peat

null | Estrogen, memory and heredity: Imprinting and the stress response


IN OUTLINE: Stresses, including estrogen excess, activate the Heat Shock Proteins (HSP), the stress-proteins, a primitive defense system. Heat Shock Proteins and "hormone receptors" are closely related and interdependent. Stress (at least partly via HSP) activates viral expression, ordinary gene expression, and destabilizes the genome, activating the "endonucleases," enzymes which break up


ARTICLE | Ray Peat

null | Suitable Fats, Unsuitable Fats: Issues in Nutrition


For fifty years, the mass media have been making the public think about the fats in their diet, filling the culture with clichés about bad saturated animal fats that raise cholesterol, or lately the trans-fats in margarine, and images of arteries clogged by bad fats. The public instruction about the fats we should eat resembles the owner's manual for a car, that tells you what kind of motor oil


ARTICLE | Ray Peat

null | Lactate vs. CO2 in wounds, sickness, and aging; the other approach to cancer


GLOSSARY Aerobic glycolysis, the conversion of glucose to lactic acid even in the presence of oxygen. The presence of oxygen normally restrains glycolysis so that glucose is converted to carbon dioxide instead of lactic acid. Anaerobic glycolysis, the increased conversion of glucose to lactic acid when the supply of oxygen isn't sufficient, which is a normal event during intense muscle action


ARTICLE | Ray Peat

null | The Great Fish Oil Experiment


Reading medical journals and following the mass media, it's easy to get the idea that fish oil is something any sensible person should use. It's rare to see anything suggesting that it could be dangerous. During the recent years in which the U.S. government has gone from warning against the consumption of too much of these omega-3 oils ("to assure that the combined daily intake of two fatty


ARTICLE | Ray Peat

null | Milk in context: allergies, ecology, and some myths


Food allergies are becoming much more common in recent decades, especially in industrialized countries. Most attention has been given to theories about changes in people, such as the reduction in infectious diseases and parasites, or vitamin D deficiency, or harmful effects from vaccinations, and little attention has been given to degradation of the food supply. Our food cultures, like


ARTICLE | Ray Peat

null | Intuitive knowledge and its development


Understanding consciousness is necessary for understanding life. Variations of consciousness, such as dementia, depression, delusion, or insight, originality, curiosity have to be understood biologically. To understand our ability to know and discover, I think it's valuable to consider foolishness along with wisdom, since "knowledge" consists of both. Scientists have been notorious for opposing


ARTICLE | Ray Peat

null | Aging Eyes, Infant Eyes, and Excitable Tissues


The eyes and the lungs are sensitive tissues that are easily harmed by inappropriate environmental exposure. They are especially sensitive in infancy and old age. For 60 years there have been controversies about the cause of retinopathy of prematurity, which has blinded tens of thousands of people. Degeneration of the retina is the main cause of blindness in old people. Retinal injury is


ARTICLE | Ray Peat

null | Aging, estrogen, and progesterone


“Estrogen” refers not just to a family of steroids but to a class of substances that can produce approximately the same effects as estradiol and its metabolites. Even before the pure substance was isolated in the 1930s, the effects of fluid from ovarian follicles were studied. It was soon discovered that many chemicals could produce similar effects. By the middle of the century, many toxic


ARTICLE | Ray Peat

null | RU486, Cancer, Estrogen, and Progesterone.


Recently many people have been disturbed by reading claims that progesterone can cause cancer, or diabetes, or autoimmune diseases, or heart disease, or Alzheimer's disease. A flurry of press conferences, and a few groups of "molecular biologists" working on "progesterone receptors," and the results of studies in which Prempro (containing a synthetic "progestin") increased breast cancer, have


ARTICLE | Ray Peat

null | Caffeine: A vitamin-like nutrient, or adaptogen


Questions about tea and coffee, cancer and other degenerative diseases, and the hormones. There is a popular health-culture that circulates mistaken ideas about nutrition, and coffee drinking has been a perennial target of this culture. It is commonly said that coffee is a drug, not a food, and that its drug action is harmful, and that this harm is not compensated by any nutritional benefit


ARTICLE | Ray Peat

null | Unsaturated Vegetable Oils: Toxic


GLOSSARY: Immunodeficiency (weakness of the immune system) can take many forms. AIDS, for example, refers to an immunodeficiency which is "acquired," rather than "inborn." Radiation and vegetable oils can cause "acquired immunodeficiency." Unsaturated oils, especially polyunsaturates, weaken the immune system's function in ways that are similar to the damage caused by radiation, hormone