Phosphate, activation, and aging

Website | Ray Peat


Recent publications are showing that excess phosphate can increase inflammation, tissue atrophy, calcification of blood vessels, cancer, dementia, and, in general, the processes of aging. This is especially important, because of the increasing use of phosphates as food additives. Previously, the complications of chronic kidney disease, with increased serum phosphate, were considered to be


Growth hormone: Hormone of Stress, Aging, & Death?

Website | Ray Peat


The name "growth hormone" is misleading; stress produces somatic growth, in a process called "hormesis." Exercise produces muscle edema, to a degree similar to that produced by GH; edema stimulates growth, but GH effect isn't limited to bone and muscle. Identity of GH: Molecular ambiguity, complex modifications change one substance into many; its evolution suggests a role in water regulation


Prostate Cancer

Website | Ray Peat


It was noticed several decades ago that estrogen causes the prostate gland to enlarge in experimental animals, but by then an oversimplified view of the sex hormones was already well established, that led people to say that "estrogen causes the female organs to grow, and testosterone causes the male organs to grow." Logically extending this mistaken idea led many of the same people to suppose



Website | Ray Peat


Since I am trying to discuss a complex matter in a single article, I have separately outlined the essential technical points of the argument in a section at the beginning, then I explain how my ideas on the subject developed, and finally there is a glossary. If you start with "Short-day brain stress," "Estrogen's effects," and "Symptoms and therapies," you will have the general picture, and can


Meat physiology, stress, and degenerative physiology

Website | Ray Peat


The US Department of Agriculture claims that the Pure Food and Drugs Act of 1906 and the Meat Inspection Act of the same year were passed because the food industry demanded them. Ordinary historians believe that Upton Sinclair's 1905 serial publication of his novel about the meat industry, The Jungle, caused the public and Theodore Roosevelt to pressure Congress to pass the laws. Sinclair's


Fatigue, aging, and recuperation

Website | Ray Peat


- Old people and sick people tire easily. Surprisingly, little is known to explain that common fact. - Myths about lactic acid and oxygen debt have misdirected most fatigue research. - The cellular processes involved in fatigue overlap with those of aging. - Knowledge about the mechanisms of fatigue should be useful in preventing some tissue swelling disorders, organ failure, degenerative


Cataracts: water, energy, light, and aging

Website | Ray Peat


Because of the baby boom population bulge, the market for cataract surgery and the little plastic intraocular lenses is growing wonderfully. According to the World Health Organization, there were about 20 million cataract surgeries performed in 2010, with 32 million expected in 2020. In the US, about 3 million cataract surgeries are performed annually. Revenue from sale of the intraocular lenses


Serotonin: Effects in disease, aging and inflammation

Website | Ray Peat


Interpreting medical publications requires some skills that aren't needed for understanding more strictly scientific reports, because medical writing often takes into account the fact that physicians spend most of their time interacting with the public, rather than studying. The public's understanding of medicine is shaped by "public relations," by the introduction of words and concepts that frame


The Cancer Matrix

Website | Ray Peat


It isn't hard to understand that in heart failure the heart is undergoing changes in a unitary way, with all parts of the organ affected, and that parallel changes are happening in the rest of the body, interacting with and contributing to the changes in the heart, so that heart failure is now considered to be a systemic disease. (Most doctors see the systemic nature of heart disease, at least to


Heart and hormones

Website | Ray Peat


The heart's unique behavior has given cardiologists a particularly mechanical perspective on biology. If a cardiologist and an oncologist have anything to talk about, it's likely to be about why cancer treatments cause heart failure; a cardiologist and an endocrinologist might share an interest in "cardioprotective estrogen" and "cardiotoxic obesity." Cell physiology and bioenergetics aren't